Jews in the Netherlands face mounting restrictions.

Anti-Jewish measures

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At the beginning of the Occupation, the Nazis basically let the Jews go about their business. This all changes in October 1940. Measures are introduced one after the other. Civil servants must sign an official declaration stating whether they are Jewish or not. Just like in Germany earlier on, Jewish civil servants and teachers are fired from their jobs. At the beginning of 1941, all Jews in the Netherlands must register.

Anne writes:

“You couldn't do this and you couldn't do that, but life went on. Jacque always said to me: ‘I don't dare do anything anymore, 'cause I'm afraid it's not allowed.’”

Business ownership is banned

Beginning in October 1940, Jews may no longer own their businesses. Jewish owners must register their businesses so that the occupiers can Aryanize them.

Otto Frank makes Jo Kleiman the managing director of Opekta, but remains active behind the scenes. Victor Kugler becomes the managing director of the seasonings company Pectacon which is renamed Gies & Co. A few months later the companies move from the Singel 400 to the Prinsengracht 263.

To a separate Jewish School

After the summer of 1941, Margot and Anne are required to attend the Jewish High School. The Occupier forbids Jewish students from going to the same schools as non-Jewish children. This is the first time the Frank sisters attend the same school.

Jewish star

In addition, at the beginning of May 1942, they are forced to wear a yellow star with the  word “Jew” prominently displayed on their clothing. On June 12th 1942 is Anne Frank's birthday; she turns 13. On that day she receives a gift from her parents that she really wants: a June  diary. She immediately begins writing in it.

Rembrandtplein, Amsterdam Signs appear in the Netherlands saying ‘Forbidden for Jews’ or ‘Jews Not Wanted’.

Anti-Jewish Decrees

In her diary, Anne writes a list of things that are no longer permitted:

“Our freedom was severely restricted by a series of anti-Jewish decrees: Jews were required to wear a yellow star; Jews were required to turn in their bicycles; Jews were forbidden to use trams; Jews were forbidden to ride in cars, even their own; Jews were required to do their shopping between 3:00 and 5:00 P.M.; Jews were required to frequent only Jewish-owned barbershops and beauty parlors; Jews were forbidden to be out on the streets between 8:00 P.M. and 6:00 A.M.; Jews were forbidden to attend theaters, movies or any other forms of entertainment; Jews were forbidden to use swimming pools, tennis courts, hockey fields or any other athletic fields; Jews were forbidden to go rowing; Jews were forbidden to take part in any athletic activity in public; Jews were forbidden to sit in their gardens or those of their friends after 8:00 P.M.; Jews were forbidden to visit Christians in their homes; Jews were required to attend Jewish schools, etc.”

Entrance of Vondelpark seen from Van Eeghenstraat. During the occupation, Vondelpark was prohibited for Jews (©Stadsarchief Amsterdam).
Anne en vriendinnen
Anne ice skating in Vondelpark, winter 1941

SS'ers van het Regiment "Der Führer" op het talud voor de Grebbesluis - 13 mei 1940

The German invasion The conquest of Western Europe

The German invasion of the Netherlands on 10 May 1945 is part of its conquest of Belgium and France. Through a combination of tactics, luck and brute force, the Germans swiftly force Western Europe into submission.


Anti-Jewish measures Jews in the Netherlands face mounting restrictions

At the beginning of the Occupation, the Nazis basically let the Jews go about their business...


Anne Frank at the Jewish Lyceum Anne has attended the Jewish Lyceum since 1 October 1941.

By order of the Nazis, Jewish children are no longer allowed to attend regular schools...

Anne Frank Stichting

Preparing to go into hiding The Frank family prepare the hiding place

The hiding place is located in the empty part of Otto Frank's office building at 263 Prinengracht.