On Sunday, 20 June 1943, the Nazis held a major raid in Amsterdam. The action had been secretly prepared by the Nazis. German and Dutch police officers closed off neighbourhoods in the east and south of Amsterdam. This was where most of the Amsterdam Jews lived.
From 3:30 in the morning, loudspeaker cars were driving around, ordering the Jews to report at assembly points. Those who did not come voluntarily were forcibly removed from their homes. The raid lasted well into the night and continued the next day. Approximately 5,500 Jews were arrested.
A month later, the occupying forces held a smaller raid. On 29 September 1943, a final major raid was held. Approximately 10,000 Jews were arrested and taken to Camp Westerbork. There were now almost no Jews left in Amsterdam.